The transformations underway across the Middle East present both an opportunity and a challenge for U.S. policy in the region. Many new actors are entering the political stage and their positions, goals, and political weight are still difficult to judge, making the formulation of a new U.S. policy difficult. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Middle East Initiative at the Harvard Kennedy School co-hosted a half-day conference about the forces shaping the region and the options for the United States.