Saudi Arabia's latest drive to reform its economy will not be cheap or easy although now there seems to be a stronger will to carry out necessary changes than in years past.
When the time comes, new approaches to economic reconstruction are needed in Syria.
Although Saudi Arabia has appointed a new oil minister, it will most likely continue to maintain its current petroleum production policy.
Iraq must weigh its objectives for market share against the risk that oil prices may fail to rebound if it does not join the production freeze outlined by fellow OPEC members.
Strategic spending has long helped the Algerian government placate its citizens and maintain fragile stability. But deteriorating finances could jeopardize that approach.
As a number of countries in the Middle East and North Africa seek to meet their growing energy needs, they are forced to weigh the highly contested costs and benefits of nuclear power.
The relationship between oil prices, investment and future supply is not so straightforward, and international organizations warn of a major price spike in the future.
The Egyptian president’s central role in economic policy making is unlikely to deliver on the intended goals and could exacerbate existing problems—or generate new ones.
While privatizing Saudi Aramco makes considerable sense over the long run, it is unlikely that a large-scale IPO will happen, either now or in the next several years.
The Syrian government has had a dual approach to its wartime economy, intervening when necessary but often adopting a laissez-faire stance towards traders.