The second conference in the Carnegie Middle East Center’s security sector reform project followed up on the progress of participants in the two years since the previous conference. The conference also discussed how issues of legal protection, human rights enforcement, codes of conduct, and the role of the media are critical to improve reform efforts targeting security institutions in the region. The conference explored the applicability of models of community policing, discussed the possible de-militarization and de-politicization of the security sector, and evaluated the rights and needs of security personnel. The conference expanded its list of recommendations and developed benchmarks to measure the progress of the different initiatives started and maintained since the first conference.