Carnegie’s Washington-based Middle East Program and the Carnegie Middle East Center convened a special workshop that sought to examine potential long-term scenarios for the West Bank and Gaza and their impact on Palestinian life, politics, and livelihood. The workshop sessions examined multiple possibilities for the evolution of Palestinian political dynamics, including the fate of the Palestinian National Authority, the role of political Islam, and the role of outside and alternative actors in the evolution of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Participants considered future economic scenarios for Palestine and examined the impact of the ongoing occupation and settlement activities in Palestinian attitudes.