As many great powers have found when intervening to support the military of a client state, Russian expectations in Syria have not been entirely met. The lessons that Russia has learned, both positive and negative, speak to the complexity of the situation on the ground in Syria, and to the ever-shifting character of modern warfare. Russian officials keep their cards close to their chest, but this dossier explores what is known about the perceptions and perspectives they bring to the task of standing up the Syrian Arab Army.

Syrian Politics Trump Russian Military Reforms, Yezid Sayigh

The Efficiency of the Syrian Armed Forces: An Analysis of Russian Assistance, Anton Lavrov

Russia and Syrian Military Reform: Challenges and Opportunities, Alexey Khlebnikov

Russia’s Role in Reforming Syrian Special Services, Kirill Semenov