Over time, the Kuwait-Saudi border has developed a unique, flexible approach of firm physical boundaries but open economic boundaries. This approach allows both countries to resolve border disputes, such as an oil-related dispute from 2009 to 2019, but more investment could further strengthen Kuwait-Saudi ties.
The Iraqi-Syrian border continues to be geopolitically restless. Kurdish parties have taken advantage of central government weaknesses to increase their autonomy in these areas.
Ouargla Province, in central Algeria, is a resource-rich but infrastructure-poor province. As protests there ramp up, Algiers may find itself squeezed on solutions.
Kuwait and Iraq have worked hard to rebuild bilateral ties. Resolving their maritime dispute as part of larger discussions could provide a model of diplomacy.
Authoritarian military politics in North Africa will be shaped by relations between the military and the head of state, dynamics within the coercive sector, marginalization of the private sector, and the ability of state actors to leverage foreign support.
Challenges to governance across the Arab region are likely to exacerbate in light of the strain produced by the COVID-19 crisis.
Holding elections wouldn't solve all the problems Palestinians face, but they could lead to a semblance of unity, or at least modest signs of renewal and better coordination
The Saudi and U.S. government relationship is in crisis. Is the Biden administration doing enough to heal it?
U.S. President Joe Biden seeks to end the six-year war in Yemen by dialing down military interventions and returning to diplomacy. Strange as it may seem, the Saudis’ current strategy is not that different.
As Egypt and Ethiopia negotiate the details of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, tensions are on the rise. Sudan, which has vested interest in the dam, too, could be an essential third party to smooth over the disputes.
The November 2020 ceasefire agreement halted the war over Nagorny Karabakh, but a sustainable peace agreement remains far from reach. By providing economic support and fostering dialogue and reconciliation, international actors can play a role in this long-term project.
While the Algerian state, like many others in the region, debates human security and the protection of the most vulnerable, it is this very same state that put women and children at risk.
As conflicts in Syria, Yemen, Libya, and Iraq move toward de-escalation, postwar reconstruction will be complicated. Each country has a unique postwar outlook, but in all four countries, political reconstruction is a key foundation for long-term economic stability.
Protesters in the marginalized city of Tataouine have successfully forced the hand of Tunisia's government, becoming an inspiration for other struggling regions. But while under tremendous constraints, including a pandemic, is Tunis even capable of delivering on its commitments?
Ten years after its protests sparked the Arab Spring, Tunisia remains the lone country in the Middle East to have effectively changed its system of governance. Yet many Tunisians have mixed feelings about how much progress their country has made.
In an unexpected constitutional decree, Oman’s new sultan created a crown prince position and reconfigured the powers of the country’s two-chamber assembly. But to create real change, he would have to empower the consultative council to truly represent citizens.
To survive its ongoing financial crisis, Lebanon needs a new economic system that addresses massive income inequality. Paired with political and institutional reform, tax reform can help.
The UAE has an opportunity to professionalize the military by building its strategic planning and force development capabilities and by committing to international principles of professional military conduct and greater transparency and accountability.
By pushing economic liberalization in the Middle East without requiring transparency and fighting corruption, international donors have allowed the region’s elites to hog power and resources. The result is a combustible mix of anger and disillusionment.
Despite the Hirak’s few tangible successes, one thing remains sure: there is before and after February 22, 2019.