• Creating a New Political Reality in Egypt

    August 20, 2008

    At present there are at least three possible readings of Egyptian politics. There is the government version, in which President Mubarak's decision to amend Article 76 of the constitution to permit direct and pluralistic elections for the presidency is an historic reform step approved by a majority of Egyptians, first via the two chambers of parliament and then via the May 25 public referendum.

  • Judges Club Challenges the Egyptian Regime

    Dina Shehata
    August 20, 2008

    In recent months, with pressures on the Egyptian government to reform growing, elements of Egyptian civil society have seized the moment to advance longstanding agendas. Among the most surprising and significant groups to press their advantage were judges.

  • Women and Strategies for Change: An Egyptian Model

    Diane Singerman
    August 20, 2008

    Quite apart from international efforts to "rescue" women in the Middle East, female activists in Arab countries have been toiling for decades for reforms that achieve concrete gains for women. Recently, certain efforts have borne fruit through the use of pragmatic, coalition-building strategies that take advantage of the expanded political space available in some countries.

  • Egypt's Judges Win Public Support but not Government Concessions

    Amy Hawthorne, Hesham Nasr
    August 19, 2008

    After a few months of quiet, Egypt's judicial independence movement in recent weeks has surged forward into a major confrontation with the Supreme Judicial Council, which pro-reform judges view as too closely aligned with the executive branch.

  • Egypt's Brotherhood Triggers Debate but Cannot Pass Legislation

    "How do you think the Muslim Brotherhood performance has affected parliament?" The question was posted on the website of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's largest opposition group, in mid-March after 100 days in the current parliament. The results offered a boost.

  • Five Myths about Western Political Party Aid in the Arab World

    Until recently Western assistance programs aimed at strengthening political parties were less present in the Arab world than in almost all other areas of the developing world. As part of the heightened U.S. and European interest in promoting Arab political reform, however, such programs are multiplying in the region.

  • What Future for Egyptian Liberals?

    Issandr El Amrani
    August 19, 2008

    The 2005 elections realigned the Egyptian political landscape into a virtual two-party system: the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) and an emergent Muslim Brotherhood. Leftists and liberals were left stranded by their abysmal electoral showing (16 seats total). While civil society groups remain active, liberal political parties are in deep crisis.

  • Point/Counterpoint on Egypt's Constitutional Amendments

    David M. DeBartolo
    August 19, 2008

    Much of the debate surrounding Egypt's constitutional amendments has focused on individual articles, largely obscuring the rationale behind them: achieving a greater balance of power between the executive and legislative branches and rebuilding the political center.

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  • The Egyptian Regime, the Brotherhood, and Labor Pains of the Fourth Republic

    Khalil Al Anani
    August 19, 2008

    The “Al Azhar Militias” incident, in which some Muslim Brotherhood students staged a martial arts display in early December 2006, constitutes a turning point in the Brotherhood's relationship with the Egyptian regime. It triggered a regime crackdown—not the first during the presidency of Hosni Mubarak but the harshest and potentially the most important.

  • Educational Reform's Selective Benefits in Egypt

    Florian Kohstall
    August 19, 2008

    On January 22, Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif officially launched Nile University. Located in the high-tech development zone Smart Village, 20 km northwest of Cairo, it is the first Egyptian private university focusing on post-graduate studies and research. Since 1996, more than ten private universities have been established.

  • Egyptian Civil Society and the Proposed Constitutional Amendments

    Bahey Eldin Hassan
    August 19, 2008

    On December 26, 2006 President Hosni Mubarak formally requested that the People's Assembly amend some 34 articles of the constitution, a move heralded by the government-controlled press as promising "a new era of democracy" and "the rise of the citizenry."

  • Regression in the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood’s Party Platform?

    August 18, 2008

    The Muslim Brotherhood's draft party platform sends mixed signals about the movement's political views and positions. Although it has already been widely circulated, the document does not yet have final approval from the movement's guidance bureau.

  • A Leap toward Egyptian Reform—or Succession?

    Joshua Stacher
    August 18, 2008

    Egypt's ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) convened its fourth annual conference September 19-21, advertising it as “The Second Leap Forward”. Speeches by senior party members and carefully packaged briefing papers emphasized the party's achievements in economic and political reform and laid out a fairly ambitious agenda for the coming year.

  • The Gamal Mubarak Paradox

    Samer Shehata
    August 18, 2008

    Among the ironies of Egypt's stalled process of political reform is that it is inextricably linked to the future of 42-year old presidential scion Gamal Mubarak. The younger Mubarak fashions himself as a Western-oriented reformer and in fact has championed some notable economic and political liberalization measures.

  • Rough Sledding for U.S. Party Aid Organizations in the Arab World

    Dina Bishara
    August 18, 2008

    Foreign democracy assistance organizations working directly with political parties have come into the line of fire as some Arab governments have pushed back against democratization initiatives over the past two years. In Algeria, Bahrain, and Egypt in particular, the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the International Republican Institute (IRI) have been among the first to feel pressure.

  • Emerging Consensus to Muzzle Arab Media

    Marwan Kraidy
    August 13, 2008

    After years of rhetoric about the need for a pan-Arab satellite television framework, Arab information ministers on February 12, 2008 adopted a charter that provides the tools to penalize broadcasters who attack leaders or air socially unacceptable content.

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  • Egyptian Women Activists without a Movement

    Mariz Tadros
    August 13, 2008

    There are signs that Egyptians are challenging the political inertia that has gripped the country for so long. Workers are protesting poor wages and potential lay-offs, the Muslim Brotherhood is campaigning despite government crackdowns, university students are protesting frequently, and even property tax collectors are camping out with their families to protest meager wages.

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  • Egypt and Jordan: Why Don't the Benefits of Growth Trickle Down?

    Ibrahim Saif, Ava Leone
    August 12, 2008

    Recent labor protests and bread lines in Egypt present a stark contrast to the Egyptian government’s narrative of impressive economic growth, which international financial institutions have validated. Jordan has not experienced serious protests recently, but it is also witnessing growing complaints about inflation despite notable economic growth.

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  • Second Generation Internet Users and Political Change in Egypt

    Ahmad Zaki Osman
    August 12, 2008

    Although the general strikes on April 6 and May 4 have drawn limited public participation, they have revealed an important new political phenomenon in Egypt: political mobilization by young, second generation internet users via blogs, YouTube, and Facebook. After two years of intensive government efforts to outmaneuver the opposition, this mobilization caught the regime flat-footed.

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  • Egypt's Local Elections…the End of the Democratic Spring

    Khalil al-Anani
    August 12, 2008

    The local elections to be held on April 8 confirm the continuing authoritarian hegemony over political life in Egypt, despite talk of new thinking and democratic transformation. The National Democratic Party has insisted on monopolizing the electoral process by excluding other political forces’ candidates, whether those of the (outlawed) Muslim Brotherhood or of the legal opposition parties.

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