The Egyptian military’s involvement in the economy has come at a high cost, contributing to underperformance in development and auguring a new ruling class of military officers.
Armed forces in power and in business will be hard-pressed to implement the complex and painful economic reforms needed to stimulate growth.
The Egyptian military’s involvement in the economy has come at a high cost, contributing to underperformance in development.
President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi has reinvigorated state capitalism in Egypt through military-led real estate development, industrial hubs, extractive activities, private sector encroachment, and using private investment to recapitalize the public sector.
The successful completion of Egypt’s 2016 IMF program is superficial, hiding poor economic growth relative to emerging market peers and an economy burdened by a military-led public sector.
Many countries in the Middle East and North Africa still struggle to manage the coronavirus, but Morocco’s response suggests an important evolution in civil-military relations.
Following the August Beirut port explosion, the Lebanese Armed Forces must rebuild trust with the civilian population. The LAF can serve as a critical pillar in Lebanese government efforts to strengthen national security and identity in the midst of the crisis, in light of security sector assistance from the United States and other Western partners.
Iraq’s military responses to the coronavirus pandemic are diverse: creating more tension in Shia civil-military relations, buildingtrust in Sunni civil-military relations, and pushing the government to emphasize sovereignty over externally fueled partisanship.
The Egyptian military may intervene in neighboring Libya, but it likely wants to avoid a major confrontation.
In recent years Syria’s military has been characterized by an unprecedented degree of sectarianism.