Under the presidency of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, civil-military relations remain imbalanced: but paradoxically, the overwhelming role of the military, also as economic player, combines with the subtle narrowing of the military as cohesive entity.
As elections near, among the country’s priorities will be to address the shortcomings of its political system and its identity.
Without deep legislative and structural reforms, Lebanon's agricultural sector could suffer severely, pushing even more people out of work and into poverty.
Pouring money into health infrastructure will have little effect if qualified doctors have few incentives to stay.
Spot analysis from Carnegie scholars on events relating to the Middle East and North Africa.
The Egyptian military’s involvement in the economy has come at a high cost, contributing to underperformance in development and auguring a new ruling class of military officers.
Armed forces in power and in business will be hard-pressed to implement the complex and painful economic reforms needed to stimulate growth.
The Egyptian military’s involvement in the economy has come at a high cost, contributing to underperformance in development.
President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi has reinvigorated state capitalism in Egypt through military-led real estate development, industrial hubs, extractive activities, private sector encroachment, and using private investment to recapitalize the public sector.
The successful completion of Egypt’s 2016 IMF program is superficial, hiding poor economic growth relative to emerging market peers and an economy burdened by a military-led public sector.