Having lost the cushion of Gulf support, many Arab states are looking for external financing from international financial institutions and other donors such as China (particularly in North Africa) and the United States.
The Syrian military’s efforts to contain the Covid-19 pandemic have not greatly affected its operations.
The Syrian-Turkish border has also allowed Turkey to play a greater role in Syria, fulfilling Turkish regional ambitions while also generating economic activity ensuring that internally displaced Syrian refugees remain inside Syria.
The coronavirus pandemic is changing perspectives on governance and how armed forces interact with society, but nowhere is this more salient than in the Arab world.
Egyptian and Turkish military businesses have used their institutional privileges to dominate their respective economies, but they have key differences. Turkey’s military businesses are centrally managed while Egypt’s use multiple complex conglomerates.
Faced with no shortage of domestic challenges, Erdogan is expanding Turkey’s role in the Eastern Mediterranean—and antagonizing Europe in turn.
The armies’ responses to the protests in Arab countries, in 2011 and 2019, towards their respective regimes varied from one country to another.
The Makhlouf affair may accelerate a generalized collapse of Syria’s economy and effective control over the country.
In an interview, Alison Pargeter discusses the calculations of Libya’s tribes and their impact on the struggle for power.
In Syria, Russia and the United Arab Emirates are collaborating and competing at the same time.