The once warm relationship between Turkey’s AKP and Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood has measurably cooled as geopolitical realities have shifted.
Unless Baghdad offers meaningful political reconciliation and reintegration, ISIS will tighten and deepen its rule of its mini-Islamic state in Iraq.
More than three years after the January 25 revolution toppled then Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, Egypt continues to struggle with an authoritarian media sector and constraints on freedom of expression.
The story in Iraq, which has seemed to be all about religion and military developments, is actually mostly about politics: access to government revenue and services, a say in decision-making, and a modicum of social justice.
The real story in Iraq, and the Middle East at large, is the policies of exclusion that have created an environment in which radical organizations like ISIS have been able to gain ground.
The Islamic State seeks to create and govern a Sunni heartland that bisects the Shiite-led alliance that stretches from Tehran to Hezbollah’s stronghold in Lebanon.
Though it had to operate in a hostile political environment, the Brotherhood ultimately fell because of its own political, ideological, and organizational failures.
The age of ideology in the Arab world is drawing to a close.
It is time for the United States to take responsibility for the failures of its Middle East policies.
The dramatic seizure of Mosul by ISIS marks what may be a fateful turning point in Iraq’s history. But it would be inaccurate to re-frame the region’s crises as governed solely by sect and ethnicity.